Mixed Up and Multiplied

Wherein we shuffle the deck and draw a card… again….

THE WEEKLY CHALLENGE – PERL & RAKU #176 Task 1


“I contain multitudes”

— Bob Dylan


Permuted Multiples

Submitted by: Mohammad S Anwar

Write a script to find the smallest positive integer x such that x, 2x, 3x, 4x, 5x and 6x are permuted multiples of each other.

For example, the integers 125874 and 251748 are permutated multiples of each other as

251784 = 2 x 125874

and also both have the same digits but in different order.
Output
142857

ANALYSIS

Lets spend about 30 seconds thinking this through.

[ed note: sure thing boss, 30 seconds! Hah!]

To wit: I’m not going to thoroughly explore the mathematical relationships between digits and multiples of a value, albeit this does sound really interesting. What we can observe, though, is that the multiples do need to have the same number of digits. I mean, that goes without saying, right? It’s part of being a permutation, to have the same elements rearranged.

So if we have the same number of digits, the largest multiple, 6x, must still be less than 10 in the rightmost position, or else we’ll carry and grow the length. Consequently, the rightmost digit can only be 1. We can even extend this to the next digit from the right: the two digits considered together, when multiplied by 6, must be less than 100. Or in other words, the rightmost pair must be equal to or less than 16.

Are we going to consider leading 0s? Aw, hell no. If we do, the answer is trivial: 0.

Zero times any number is zero and any arrangement is a valid permutation of itself.

So that’s trivially boring, and leading 0s are out.

Next we’ll conside a number that immediately comes to mind: 1/7. The repeating decimal on this, 0.142857, is famous for rearranging the digits in its reptend, and a quick check verifies that the number 142857 indeed does satisfy the conditions.

So that’s an answer, albeit a bit unsatisfactory. It works, but it relies on foreknowledge about this interesting number and its properties, which I don’t particularly like with regards to the challenge of writing a program to complete the task. But then again I suppose it does establish an upper bound on the smallest number with the property. It’s good to know that there is a solution, and we still have no idea whether it’s the smallest solution.

To fix this, I propose we examine all the numbers less than 142857 to see if any of these work, using brute force to test them all.

Oh, and one last note: as we’re somewhat stressing the definition of permutation here — at risk of conflating digits, their values and their placements — the question might well arise as to what’s up with duplicated digits. On the face of it I see no problem: a pair of 1s, for example, can be considered two distinct objects that coincidentally look the same. As far as the permutation aspect of the process goes, we are permuting positions, not values. As such I see no driving reason to make a distinction between permutations and multiset permutations in our search. We aren’t counting unique instances of a pattern, but only that one such pattern exists. We don’t even care what that pattern looks like.

Results

Perhaps predictably, 142857 is indeed the smallest value that satisfies the conditions. So I expanded the search space to look further afield.

What I found more interesting were that no common multiples of 142857 worked, with next value a full order of magnitude away: 1428570. And the one after that is also obviously related, but more mysteriously: 1429857.

I’d like to go down a rabbit-hole and connect whatever relationships these values have to 1/7 in turn carry on to why they repeat their digits as they do. Especially throwing that 9 in there at the midpoint, but I have way too many things to do this afternoon.

PERL 5 SOLUTION

use warnings;
use strict;
use utf8;
use feature ":5.26";
use feature qw(signatures);
no warnings 'experimental::signatures';

use constant  LIMIT => 1_000_000 ;

for ( 1..LIMIT ) {
    say $_ if check_multiples( $_ );
}


sub check_multiples ($n) {
## a multiset permutation will have the same elements in the same quantities.
    my $target_hash = digithash( $n );
    for (2..6) {
        return 0 unless hash_compare( $target_hash, digithash( $n * $_ ));
    }
    return 1;
}


sub hash_compare ($a, $b) {
## compare two hash references for equality in keys and values
    for (keys $a->%*) { 
        return 0 if not exists $b->{$_} or $b->{$_} != $a->{$_};
    }
    return 1;
}

sub digithash ( $n, $hash = {} ) {  
## return a frequency hash reference of digits and occurances
    $hash->{$_}++ for split //, $n;
    return $hash;
}



The Perl Weekly Challenge, that idyllic glade wherein we stumble upon the holes for these sweet descents, is now known as

The Weekly Challenge – Perl and Raku

It is the creation of the lovely Mohammad Sajid Anwar and a veritable swarm of contributors from all over the world, who gather, as might be expected, weekly online to solve puzzles. Everyone is encouraged to visit, learn and contribute at

https://theweeklychallenge.org

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